Minutes of the MLA/NCC Business Meeting of May 2, 2003
Alicia Patrice, CSU Sacramento
The Northern California Chapter of the Music Library Association held its Spring 2003 meeting at the Berkeley Public Library. The morning session included an tour and overview of the library’s resources by Pat Mullan, Marti Morec and Lynn Wold. In the afternoon Manuel Erviti gave a presentation on the identification of a mystery score brought to the UC Berkeley Library.
The business meeting was held in the afternoon and was called to order by Manuel Erviti, Chair. Present were Ray Heigemeir (Stanford - Past Chair), Manuel Erviti (UC Berkeley) (Chair), Jason Gibbs (San Francisco Public Library - Newsletter Editor), Alicia Patrice (CSU Sacramento - Secretary/Treasurer), Richard Ross (SFSU, retired), Judy Clarence (CSU Hayward), Debbie Smith (San Francisco Conservatory), Mike Irvine (College of Marin), Kathy Earl (SJSU Library Student), Bridget Boylan (SF Public), Rhonelle Runner (University of the Pacific), John Poole (Poole Editions), Sally Berlowitz (San Francisco State University), Mimi Tashiro (Stanford), Laura Moody (SJSU Library Student), Janet Bochin (CSU Fresno), Claudia Reddin (CSU Fresno), Sandy Schmitz (Berkeley Public Library), and John Roberts (UC Berkeley).
Alicia Patrice reported that there is a balance of approximately $1100 in our account and
(continued on p. 2)
Library Association Northern California Chapter
Vol. 18, no. 1 (Fall 2003)
(Minutes, cont. from page 1)
members who were not in attendance at the fall meeting were reminded to pay dues.
The joint meeting with the other West Coast chapters was discussed relating to tentative agreements made at the “Left Coast Mixer,” held at the national MLA meeting in Austin. Preliminary program committees were formed and a tentative date of Spring 2005 in Eugene, Oregon was set. More information will be forthcoming. Most people agreed that the “Left Coast Mixer” was a good way to meet with other chapters.
It was announced that the national MLA has some “Chapter Grant Awards” that are available to fund chapter projects. Outgoing MLA President Jim Cassaro has asked chapters to put on their thinking caps for future projects.
By a unanimous vote, members passed a change to the by-laws regarding the wording for the First Time Attendees Grant. This wording can be found in the Spring 2003 Newsletter. A discussion was held as to how to handle PR for said grant. Most people agreed that the best way was word of mouth, announcements in our newsletter and on our webpage.
A discussion was held regarding the standing committees of our chapter. It was decided that standing committees would stay as is and the chair of the committee would plan the meetings with the host location.
Online Newsletter: We talked about the pros and cons of moving our chapter newsletter to an electronic format. Since many other chapters and the national MLA have done this, it seems like a good idea. Paper copies will still be mailed to those who request them. A vote was taken with only the newsletter editor against this idea. We will phase it down over the next few newsletters and include a blurb in each newsletter announcing this change and giving contact information for those who would like to request paper copies.
Much discussion was held regarding the terms and elections of officers. Since it is often difficult to get the bank account moved into someone else’s name, it was suggested that we consider giving longer terms to the Secretary/Treasurer and/or splitting that position into two with the Treasurer being an appointed long-term position. The Chair of the chapter does have the power to appoint someone to a consecutive term if no one else is nominated for the position. This being the case, Alicia Patrice was reappointed to another 2-year term as Secretary/Treasurer. The future of the position will be discussed at the next meeting or via the listserv. Rhonelle Runner was nominated and elected by a unanimous vote to the position of Vice-Chair/Chair-Elect. Manuel Erviti will remain as chair until Spring of 2004.
Judy Clarence presented the topic of 24/7 Reference, Q&A Café, Virtual Reference. She wanted to know how many other institutions were involved in virtual reference services. Groups of subject specialists are being formed to handle more in-depth questions that the service receives. Judy wanted to know if anyone present (or in the membership) would be interested in serving on this subject specialist group. Contact Judy for more information.
Jason Gibbs, SF Public: Library budget is not too terrible, no services will be cut. They are considering electronic access to music scores via an Ebrary product.
Bridget Boylan, SF Public: The library will be implementing the Millenium system from Innovative Interfaces. In 2004 Technical Services will be moved from the Main Library to a location a 10 mile walk away.
Kathy Earl, SJSU Library School Student: Currently in a half-cataloging, half-reference practicum at American River College. She will also do a practicum this summer at the Crocker Museum Library in Sacramento. This will include collection analysis, writing a collection development policy, and transferring the card catalog into the OPAC.
Laura Moody, SJSU Library School Student: Will be doing a practicum this summer at the Chicago Public Library.
Ray Heigemeir and Mimi Tashiro, Stanford University: Jerry McBride from Middlebury College will start as Head of the Music Library Mid-July. Budget cuts may be worse than anticipated, empty positions have been frozen.
Michael Irvine, College of Marin: The CD collection continues to grow. His campus belongs to the Basic Aid System, which is based on taxes. Some cuts have been made and some classes cancelled. The new Digital Arts Lab is in operation so there will be more collaboration with the Art Department.
Judy Clarence, CSU Hayward: There has been a 50% cut in materials budget for music. The jazz program director was named outstanding professor of the year. The consolidation of the collection to reduce the number of service points has been completed.
Sally Berlowitz, SFSU: There are also budget problems at SFSU, although planning has started for the building of a new library. The groundbreaking will involve the demolishing of the current Faculty Club. They are trying to hire a music cataloging paraprofessional and may try to fill 3 positions.
Debbie Smith, SF Conservatory: The move has been postponed.
Sandy Schmitz, Music Cataloger, Berkeley Public Library: As everywhere, there are budget problems. Technical Services staff may need to do more public service.
Rhonelle Runner, University of the Pacific: Since Pacific is a private institution; the budget problems haven’t been too bad. They are also looking to reduce the number of service points. An addition is being made to the library and Rhonelle will be helping with the planning process.
John Roberts, UC Berkeley: The new Music Library is under construction; the steel structure is in place. It should be finished in October 2003, with a move-in date of January 2004. It will have 2.5 times more space than the present library. The severity of the budget problems is currently unknown and there is a hiring freeze. A new
San Francisco Conservatory of Music -- Groundbreaking
Debbie Smith – San Francisco Conservatory of Music
September 29th was the official ground-breaking for the prospective new home of the San Francisco Conservatory of Music at 50 Oak Street in the city’s Civic Center. Technically the groundbreaking was a “wall breaking” as one of the two existing buildings is slated to be torn down -- a Conservatory denizen took a Styrofoam sledgehammer and ceremoniously put a hole into the side of the soon-to-be razed structure. The evening’s festivities included the requisite champagne and speeches from San Francisco luminaries such as Willie Brown and Michael Tilson Thomas followed by a dinner in the building's old ballroom.
The project has been in the planning stages for three years and if all goes according to schedule, the Conservatory will move to the Civic Center in time for the beginning of the 2006-2007 school year. The plans are drawn and the furniture and fixtures all chosen; the only impediment to progress is the complete of the final phase of the fundraising campaign! Details, details. The new facility will ultimately juxtapose an historic, renovated building with a new structure. The renovated part of the school will retain many important architectural features including an elaborate ballroom that will be transformed into a concert hall.
The reasons for moving the Conservatory are twofold -- to become a more integral part of the city's cultural life and to gain much needed space. The school's square footage will increase from approximately 37,000 to 72,000. The number of practice rooms will triple, classroom space will double, and there will be three beautiful performance spaces instead of one. The library square footage will almost double and although we will instantly fill up that space, it will be wonderful to be able to offer more services to our students - including a decent place to study! The library will be in the newly constructed part of the building and is in a prime location on the top floor with windows overlooking Civic Center and a roof top patio. The prospect of the move is very exciting and we are all hoping that things proceed without a hitch. Look forward to a chapter meeting in the new digs sometime in 2007!
Beyond Measure: L.S. Sherman and Sherman, Clay & Company, A San Francisco House of Music, 1870-1926
By Michelle Squyer.
Leander Schulzenback Sherman was born in Boston in 1847 to Jacob and Cleopatra Loud Sherman. His father worked as a cabinetmaker and was second cousin to General William Tecumseh Sherman. Leander’s older brother Charles participated in San Francisco’s Vigilance Committee. Leander moved to San Francisco in December 1861 and worked in a clock and jewelry store. Later, A.A. Rosenberg employed him in a music store at Kearny and Sutter Streets until 1870 when Sherman bought out his boss. The twenty three year old storeowner took F. A. Hyde on as a partner to cover a shortfall in expenses and formed Sherman & Hyde Music. Sherman solidified another partnership in 1873 and married Katie Neuer. They raised Elsie, Claire, and Frederick.
What qualified Sherman to influence San Francisco as he grew from a small shop owner to an powerful businessman? Historians William Issel and Robert Cherny maintain in San Francisco 1865-1932: Politics, Power, and Urban Development that an exact definition of business leaders is not defined for San Francisco, as the measure of their economic influence is imprecise. Seats on boards of directors are one measure of influence with three seats as a benchmark for “economic leadership.” These historians describe the web of leaders, the corporate and civil boards they filled, and the familial ties that connected leaders to one another. Sherman served as a director on corporate boards, and his successor at Sherman, Clay & Co.(hereafter Sherman Clay), Philip Clay, likewise assumed leadership roles. The characteristic of “economic leader” helped the Shermans and Clays, not only with their music firm’s growth, but through contacts, leadership helped the house of music influence the cultural life of San Francisco.
When L.S. Sherman bought his business in 1870, San Francisco enjoyed a rich musical life. Roger Lotchin’s San Francisco 1846-1856: from Hamlet to City characterizes the city as an “instant city” that developed with all the facets of city life, including an active music scene. By 1852, George Loder conducted the San Francisco Philharmonic Concert Orchestra. The Chinese Theater Orchestra played with its dramatic company as early as 1853. Other theater orchestras, chamber orchestras, and brass bands performed during the 1850s. Between 1850 and 1860 the most popular operas in San Francisco were La Fille Du Regiment, Norma, and The Crown Diamonds. San Franciscans flocked to venues like the First Metropolitan, Maguire’s Opera House, and the Adelphi.
By 1862, San Franciscans had five local merchants from whom they could select a piano. Atwill & Company (1855) and Mathias Gray & Co. (1862) were among seventeen merchants that sold music locally. In a city with a rich musical scene and retail outlets for musical wares, Sherman & Hyde used a newsletter early in their history as a method to promote merchandise and music events. They first published the Musical Review in 1874. It printed music, gossip, and concert reviews. The Musical Review had a circulation of about 5,000 and ran through 1878, ceasing publication after a scant twenty-five issues. The publication listed Jewish New Year, Catholic, and Universalist music services and conservatory, operatic, orchestral, and comic performances. It brought students and music teachers together and its advertising aimed at increasing piano and sheet music sales.
The Musical Review feature “Music in the Schools” monitored music education. A letter reprinted in 1874 complained about $5,400 spent in public schools to teach music in San Francisco. An 1875 issue reported that a three-member committee examined and reported on the condition of music instruction in San Francisco public schools. It was in Sherman & Hyde’s interest to steward the music education of young San Franciscans.
Sherman & Hyde published music locally and by 1877 retailed Boston publisher Oliver Ditson’s sheet music through the Musical Review. Sherman Clay sold music through Oliver Ditson’s established distribution networks in Boston, New York, and Chicago by 1899. They shipped music east from San Francisco, representing a creative group of San Francisco composers, arrangers, lyricists, and cover art illustrators. The Review emulated East Coast publications like Ditson’s Dwight’s Journal of Music (1858-78) that similarly catered to music teachers and students. The West Coast Musical Review predated Philadelphia publisher Theodore Presser’s publication, The Etude’s 1882 genesis.
During the years that Sherman & Hyde used music literature to influence San Francisco, Sherman Hyde made other business changes as well. Major C.C. Clay joined Sherman in 1876 after buying Hyde’s share of the company. By 1882 Sherman Clay manufactured piano-fortes along with ten other San Francisco manufacturers. Sherman Clay acquired Mathias Gray & Co. in 1892 and with it, the regional Steinway piano dealership. Steinway tended to be the most widely advertised instrument Sherman Clay carried. Sherman Clay bought fifty-two pianos from Steinway in 1893, 236 by 1903, 341 by 1913, and increased to 467 pianos by 1923. Promotions with Steinway added to the name recognition Sherman Clay enjoyed. This relationship solidified after the 1906 earthquake when Steinway & Sons gave Sherman Clay twelve pianos following the loss of their San Francisco store.
Sherman Clay focused on pianos, but also gave concerts in their own hall. Sherman & Clay Hall stood at Sutter Street and later was renamed Steinway Hall. Impresario Selby C. Oppenheim booked talent for various venues and Sherman Clay sold tickets. Sherman Clay never made a profit on ticket sales, but did so for the good of San Francisco. The concerts were not strictly philanthropic; Sherman Clay benefited from music-lovers who likely shopped while in the store.
With their own concerts, outside ticket sales, sponsored concerts, Steinway pianos lent for concerts, and the local liaison role they filled with Steinway artists, Sherman Clay secured a firm entrée to effect cultural events. Sherman Clay sponsored a benefit that Ignace Jan Paderewski gave for the Polish Victims Relief Fund in August 1915 at the Festival Hall at the Panama-Pacific Exposition. Mrs. William H. Crocker served as chairman and other patronesses like Mrs. Herbert Hoover and Mrs. James Rolf contributed. The benefit featured a Chopin program and drew attention to the war in Europe. Despite the Exposition’s festivities in their midst, San Franciscans were aware of the war economically, politically, and socially.
Sherman Clay simultaneously garnered recognition while supporting music in San Francisco like the Paderewski’s concert. Sponsorship placed the firm’s name, usually with the Steinway & Sons name, firmly in the hand of each San Francisco concert attendee. The printed program at the Paderewski benefit featured a Sherman Clay advertisement on the back, and incorporated Paderewski’s relationships with Steinway and Victor. Victor Herbert played a week of concerts in San Francisco in 1915 and the program copy read “Victor Herbert makes records for the Victor” and “For Real Victor Service-Sherman, Clay & Co.” Sherman Clay enjoyed widespread name recognition on the Pacific Coast as a result of such sponsorship.
Like advertising, music publishing had a range of purposes. “Coon songs” and war songs are two genres that Sherman Clay published that shed light on the business and civic-minded nature of their approach to music. The “coon song,” sung in mimicked African American dialect, enjoyed popularity in the United States between the 1880s and World War I. The genre, though offensive to some people in the late nineteenth century, was considered comic song. In “The Missing Link!” (1886) lyrics “comically” suggest who is the missing link. Initials, rather than the full names of composer and lyricist are named on the sheet music. In 1896, Sherman Clay published full-fledged coon song “Matilda Brown.” “Tell de Lawd I’m Comin’” (1898) is referred to both as a “Coon Song” and a “Darkey Song” on the cover. The song “Dat Nigger Knocker” (1898) is heralded on the cover as the “latest coon song … appreciated by all.” This song showed the international popularity of the genre and San Francisco publisher Sherman Clay’s reach with distribution as far as London.
Sherman Clay published coon songs as one profitable genre with no socially redeeming value. They published patriotic songs too. As a regional publisher, Sherman Clay featured western locales that East Coast music houses may have overlooked. In “The California Volunteer” (1898) composer / lyricist James Guildea writes: “I am a San Francisco boy enlightened on the heel, Strap on my knapsack and to the war I’ll go, And drive the Spanish soldiers to the Gulf of Mexico.” “We’re Coming Back to California” (1918) served as the U.S. Government’s official Song of the 40th Sunshine Division. It too featured western lyrics: “You know I love you best, Girl of the Golden West, And the Land of the Western Sun. I’ll pack up right a way for the old U.S.A.” The songs’ lyrics depicted a nationalistic flavor that typified the period around the Spanish American and Great Wars.
Sherman Clay published based on a blend of motives. They published “coon songs,” or other “race music” because it sold, despite its offensiveness. Nationalism and the profitability prompted Sherman Clay to publish war songs. Given this overall profitability, the company opened publishing offices in New York, Chicago, Detroit, Denver, and Los Angeles in 1917.
The company grew throughout the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Sherman and Clay had filed articles of incorporation with the State of California in 1892. The firm had five directors, Sherman, Clay, Leonard Georges, L.F. Geissler, and F.W. Stephenson. The capital stock was assigned at $1million and divided into 10,000 shares of one hundred dollars each. By 1921, the capital stock increased from $2 million to $4 million. When the stock value reached $7 million in 1923, the company had issued both common and preferred stock. The Shermans and Clays held $2 million each of each, while the public held $3 million of preferred stock. Sherman Clay added new stores throughout the Pacific Coast and centralized their business operations for all their interests.
C.C. Clay and L.S. Sherman made their sons Frederick Sherman and Phillip Clay directors in 1902. Philip Clay led San Francisco as chairman of the 1909 Portola Festival, a forerunner to the Panama-Pacific International Exposition (PPIE). Clay served with J.H. Crothers, Charles de Young, Milton H. Esberg, and James Rolph Jr. These business leaders orchestrated a colorful civic pageant that included school children singing in public squares, and bands and regiments playing to 480,000 visitors.
Clay’s Portola Festival work led to his PPIE leadership. He served on the Exposition’s Conventions Committee. It used San Francisco’s best political and business leaders in the Washington campaign to win the Exposition. Clay also worked on California’s Republican State Central Committee. Once San Francisco won the PPIE, Clay’s involvement expanded beyond lobbying efforts. He served as one of thirty directors of the Exposition, as secretary of the Concessions and Admissions Committee, and as a member of the Exploitation Committee.
According to the history of the fair, the Hawaiian Building prompted a national ukulele fad. As early as 1914, Sherman Clay published A Practical Method for Self Instruction on The Ukulele, a year before the PPIE commenced and continued in 1916 capitalizing on the fad with Songs from Aloha Land, A Collection of Hawaiian Songs with Ukulele Accompaniment. Sherman Clay sold PPIE award winning Kumalae ukuleles from their catalogs and retail stores by the 1922-1923 season, though likely earlier. Had Clay anticipated the ukulele fad and stocked Pacific Coast Sherman Clay stores with PPIE instruments and music for exposition-goers to buy? As a wise businessman, with access to the concession tenants, Clay likely had foresight of the potentially profitable fad and made inventory decisions based on this knowledge.
By 1920, Clay ascended to the presidency of Sherman Clay. Sherman’s success and affiliations marked him as a business leader, and a man of the arts. He became chairman of the board in 1920, and marked the milestone with a portrait by artist Arthur Cahill. Upon its completion, Sherman gave a luncheon in honor of Cahill at the Bohemian Club.
In August of 1915 the Bohemians honored Ignace Paderewski, shortly before his San Francisco benefit for Polish Jews. Paderewski was elected an honorary member of the club in 1921. Philip Clay served as a director of the Bohemian Club in 1920 and 1921, and Frederick Sherman served as a director in 1923 and 1924 and Vice President in 1925 and 1926. The club signified part of the elite world the Shermans and Clays belonged to, yet also knit together those with artistic, bohemian interests. Sherman Clay’s directors likely helped elect Paderewski as an honorary member. The Bohemian Club luncheon for the Polish musician-statesman may have been the real San Francisco fundraiser during his 1915 visit rather than the concert. The painting, luncheon, and leadership within the Bohemian Club represented not only status, but a network that existed between the economic leadership that enabled them to better direct the city’s cultural life.
L. S. Sherman built his mansion on Green Street, entertained musicians there, and later died there. Sherman sat on boards of directors including the United Railroads of San Francisco, California Sea Product Company, the Boys’ and Girls’ Aid Society, the San Francisco Savings and Loan Society, and the Market Street Railway Company. This service placed Sherman among San Francisco’s “economic leadership.” Sherman Clay’s strength contributed to the establishment of fifteen music stores in four western states. By 1925, shortly before his death, company assets were estimated at $9.3 million. These assets marked economic achievement, but by no means signified an absolute measure of the company’s business influence. The company promoted musical events and sold pianos and sheet music to countless families, influenced concert-going, music publishing, and other forms of music in homes, churches, and schools. L.S. Sherman and Sherman Clay had broad and deep influences on San Francisco musical life that went beyond measure.
Harper, Franklin, ed. Who’s Who on the Pacific Coast. Los Angeles: Harper Publishing Company, 1913, 512-513.
2Williams, Mary Floyd. Papers of the San Francisco Committee of Vigilance of 1851. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1919, 459, 460, 493, 494.; A June 4, 1930 newspaper article by James H. Wilkins from an unknown San Francisco newspaper lists Charles H. Sherman as a participant in the 1856 Vigilance Committee. The newspaper article describes Charles as a water wagon man. The paper has a copy of a Vigilance Committee certificate and the date does appear to read 1856, and other evidence suggests was active in the 1851 incarnation of the committee. Article from clipping file on Charles Sherman located under “Sherman Clay” at San Francisco Performing Arts Library and Museum.
4Ryder, David Warren. The Story of Sherman Clay San Francisco: Sherman Clay & Co. 1952, 19-21.
7Issel, William and Cherny, Robert W. San Francisco 1865-1932: Politics, Power, and Urban Development. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986, 34.
8Lengyel, Cornel, ed. An Anthology of Music Criticism. Vol. 7 of History of Music in San Francisco. S. F.: Works Projects Administration, 1942, 187; 189.
10Sherman & Hyde’s Musical Review. S.F.: Sherman & Hyde, 1874-1878. Summarized in the Inter-American Music Review 8, Fall-Winter 1986, 49 (page references are to this publication).
14Cooney, Celia, music, Smith, James, words. “A Message.” S.F.: Sherman, Clay & Co, 1899.
16Hittel, John S. Commerce and Industries of the Pacific Coast of North America. S. F.: A.L. Bancroft & Co, 1882, 781, 612.
18 Steinway & Sons Collection, Dealers Series, Pianos sold to Steinway Dealers; 1893-97, Box 040100, Folder 1 and 1902-1928, Box 040100 Folder 2; LaGuardia and Wagner Archives.
19Ryder, 40-41includes a reprint of the original letter.
20Ryder, 33. Lengyel, 431 notes the first performance as Sherman and Clay Hall in 1900.
21Rider, 23-24, notes that L.S. Sherman played a role in the founding of both the San Francisco Symphony and Opera, but I was unable to dig up records to corroborate this. Oppenheim served as business manager to the fledgling San Francisco Opera and by 1923 was a governing officer. His office in the Sherman Clay building and business relationship with the house of music probably linked Sherman Clay with the opera or vice versa. Arthur Bloomfield discuses the Opera’s launch in Fifty Years of the San Francisco Opera (San Francisco: San Francisco Book company, 1972), but does not mention Sherman. Many of the business elite pledged $1,000 subscriptions to the opera as founder Gaetano Merola organized the San Francisco Opera around 1922. Sherman likely subscribed to the Opera rather than made a loan, as the Sherman-Clay in-house history claims. Likewise the in-house history claims that the Symphony was given a long-term loan of a Sherman Clay employee, but I have been unable to find evidence to support this. The connections to the community would tie into my argument if I could support the involvement properly Ryder.
22Ignace J. Paderewski program for 21 August 1915 Festival Hall PPIE Polish Victims’ Relief Fund concert, Vertical Files, California State Library. Paderewski became more involved with Polish state affairs after he suffered from health problems and took a forced break from performing. During the war in Europe, he actively raised funds in Allied countries, relying on his charisma as a performer and speaker. See Paderewski, Ignacy Jan. The New Grove Dictionary of Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed 12/2002), <http://www.grovemusic.com>.
23Ignace J. Paderewski program for 21 August 1915.
24Victor Herbert program for concerts commencing week of 1 November 1915, Vertical Files, San Francisco History Center, San Francisco Public Library
25As of this writing, no financial records have surfaced regarding the sponsorship arrangements between Sherman Clay and music halls between 1870 and 1930. No company records apparently have survived. Finding aid searches and talks with librarians in history and music have turned up nothing. The company spokesperson, Mary Escalante (September 2002) said in a phone conversation that the records had been destroyed. A neighbor who knows descendants doubted that the family had any interest in placing existing papers in a repository or making them available to a researcher, if any exist. Since making queries about Steinway & Son records related to Sherman Clay, Sherman Clay has now offered to help with records if possible.
26Tawa, Nicholas. The Way to Tin Pan Alley. New York: Schirmer Books, 1990, 181-187.
27 J. W. S., music, J. P. words, “The Missing Link!” S.F.: Sherman, Clay & Co., 1886. Jones, Louis Weslyn. “Matilda Brown,” S.F.: Sherman, Clay & Co., 1896. Baldwin, Anita M. “Tell de Lawd I’m Comin’,” S.F.: Sherman, Clay & Co., 1896. G. Falkenstein, music, Ed Mansfield, words. “Dat Nigger Knocker,” S.F.: Sherman, Clay & Co., 1898. These songs can be found at the 19th Century California Sheet Music website: <www.sims.berkeley.edu/~mkduggan/neh.html>.
28Guildea, James. “The California Volunteer,” S.F.: Sherman, Clay & Co., 1898. Waterstein, Frank, music, Ralph Hogan, words, “We’re Coming Back to California,” S.F.: Sherman, Clay & Co. 1918. Edna A. Raca found a copy of this sheet music during the 1950s and sent it to a GI family member in Japan, resulting in a military band rearranged revival of song. Los Angeles Examiner September 24, 1951.
29 Ryder, 44.
32Todd, Frank Morton. The Story of the Exposition New York: G.P. Putnam, 1921, vol. I, 45.
35Final report to the Director, Committee on Exploitation, Panama-Pacific International Exposition, Vertical Files, San Francisco History Center, San Francisco Public Library.
36Todd, vol. IV, 96-97.
37 From the internet bibliography of David C. Hurd, as listed: Bailey, N. B. A Practical Method for Self Instruction on The Ukulele. S.F.: Sherman, Clay & Co.; Bailey, N. B and Awaii, Keoki E. Songs from Aloha Land, A Collection of Hawaiian Songs with Ukulele Accompaniment. S.F.: Sherman, Clay & Co., 1916. <www.ukuleles.com/Collecting/manuals.html>.
39Todd, vol. IV, 96-97
41San Francisco Chronicle, October 3, 1920 from Leander Sherman Vertical File, San Francisco Public Library. Before turning to portraiture Cahill worked in newspaper illustration, as an art editor of Sunset magazine, and as an artist for the Southern Pacific Railroad. He also painted Adolph Spreckels’s portrait in 1920. Other subjects included President Herbert Hoover, General Pershing, Governor Rolph, A.P. Giannini, Governor Hiram Johnson, and Chief Justice Irwin. See Hughes, Edan Milton. Artists in California. S.F.: Hughes Publishing, 1989, 87.
42Case, Alexander T. The Annals of the Bohemian Club for the Years 1907-1972., volume. V (S. F.: Bohemian Club, 1972, 16.; Paderewski 21 August 1915 benefit program.
44Ibid., 29, 32. In 1920 an organ was donated to the Grove, but with no precise mention of donors. It can be surmised that with Clay’s connections to the finest organ houses, that he might have been instrumental in orchestrating a good rate for an instrument from a manufacturer. Case, 37, 41, 42, 44, 46, 48.
45Walker’s Manual of Far Western Corporations & Securities, S.F., 1914-1926. 1914: 367; 1915: 516, 1916: 543; 1917: 579; 1918: 550; 1919: 310, 566; 1920: 607; 1921: 211, 646; 1924: 810, 1926: 595.
Michelle Squyer worked as the Junior Fellow in the Music Division of the Library of Congress in the Summer of 2002 and processed the Theodore Presser Archive. She earned her Master's degree in U.S. history from San Francisco State University in May 2003.
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